1. Conceptualization or/and Methodology
- ▪ Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.
- ▪ Development or design of methodology; creation of models.
2. Data curation or/and Analysis
- ▪ Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and late re-use.
- ▪ Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyse synthesize study data.
3. Funding acquisition
- ▪ Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication.
- ▪ Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/ evidence collection.
5. Project administration or/and Supervision
- ▪ Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution.
- ▪ Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team.
6. Resources or/and Software
- ▪ Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.
- ▪ Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.
- ▪ Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.
- ▪ Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation.
9. Writing: original draft or/and review & editing
- ▪ Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation).
- ▪ Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision
- – including pre- or post-publication stages.
- ▪ Authors should not submit the same manuscript, in the same or different languages, simultaneously to more than one journal. The rationale for this standard is the potential for disagreement when two (or more) journals claim the right to publish a manuscript that has been submitted simultaneously to more than one journal, and the possibility that two or more journals will unknowingly and unnecessarily undertake the work of peer review, edit the same manuscript, and publish the same article.